Dietary Supplements Definition ?

Karyadi (1997), dietary supplements definition as foods that contain nutrients and non-nutrients, can be in the form of capsules, soft capsules, powdered or liquid tablets which function as a supplement to the lack of nutrients needed to keep the vitality of the body to be excellent. According to Yulliarti (2008), dietary supplements are defined as substances or additional food ingredients consumed.

Substances or food ingredients can be vitamins, minerals, herbs or medicinal plants, amino acids or parts of substances or food ingredients. This food supplement is a companion or addition to a certain diet, nutrition, or body condition programs, and is not a substitute for food.

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BPOM (2004) defines dietary supplements as products intended to supplement the nutritional needs of food, containing one or more of the ingredients in the form of vitamins, minerals, amino acids or other ingredients (derived from plants or not plants) that have nutritional value and deep physiological effects concentrated amount. Dietary supplements can be solid products including tablets, lozenges, chewable tablets, powders, capsules or liquid products in the form of drops, syrup, solution.

Management of Dietary Supplements.



Initially the use of supplements is still limited to returning metabolic functions where the entire process is controlled by enzymes as catalysts of the body's chemical reactions that make cells work optimally.


But next, the use of supplements is no longer limited to vitamins and minerals now the limits of nutritional supplements are widening to include nutrients and healers found in herbs and other natural medicinal ingredients. (Vitahealth, 2004) .

People Who Need Dietary Supplements


  1. Mothers are pregnant and mothers are breastfeeding because they need more nutrition than ordinary people, especially vitamins and minerals. Doctors generally recommend folic acid and iron to fulfill their physiology.
  2. Individuals with certain diseases or certain disorders need nutritional needs that are also more than AKG (Nutritional Adequacy Rate) which is recommended especially certain vitamins. For example, those who are at risk for chronic heart disease (CHD) and stroke are advised to use supplements that contain vitamin B and folic acid. Also in those who have impaired absorption of fat, will reduce the ability to absorb fat-soluble vitamins
  3. Individuals who need to take medication to prevent some diseases can lack certain vitamins. For example, taking antibiotics can kill intestinal bacteria and reduce the production of vitamin K. In such conditions, these vitamin needs must be purchased with a prescription from a doctor. Smoking and drinking alcohol also increases the need for vitamins, especially vitamin B
  4. Elderly people who are generally not fulfilled their nutritional needs in accordance with the RDA, especially lack of vitamin B6 and vitamin D as well as vitamin B12 due to limitations in the teeth, tongue which decreases the ability to taste it, the type of food that must be softer than young people.
  5. People who don't eat meat (vegan) need to take vitamin B12 supplements
  6. Individuals who need to be under 1200 Calories to lose weight (especially athletes), require additional supplements to fulfill their AKG
  7. Individuals who are physically very active and not enough nutritional intake compared to their needs need supplements

Dangers of Dietary Supplements


Excess vitamin C may be excreted in the urine. But other types of vitamins (A, D, E, and K) generally settle in the body and are worried that they can interfere with organ function, especially the liver and kidneys.

Proteins that are usually found in supplements when consumed by certain people can cause allergic effects.

Excessive iron consumption is not good for sufferers of vaginal disorders such as thalassemia.

Consumption of vitamin K supplements in people who are taking certain medications sometimes worsens the situation.

Factors Associated with Consumption of Dietary supplements

  • Gender

One of the demographic characteristics associated with high use of supplements (especially multitudinary supplements) is women (Greger, 2001). Lyle at al (1998) states that, compared to men, women consume multi-nutrient supplements more often and supplement vitamin C and E. These results remain the same when adjusted for age.

Utami (1998) in Anggondowati (2002), states that the results of the Subar and Block studies show that the highest use of supplements is in women, as much as 26.8% according to the NCHS survey results (Frankle et al, 1993). combination of vitamins and multivitamins.

  • Disease history

The desire to achieve better physical status and self-treatment of disease is the reason for consuming dietary supplements (Frank et.al. 1993). According to White et al. (2004) the condition of the body that is not good, or moderate in a sick condition or having complaints about health encourages them to use supplements.

According to Bender et al. (1992) suggested that supplement use is related to individuals who have one or more health problems.

Dietary supplements are foods that contain nutrients and non-nutrients, can be in the form of capsules, soft capsules, tablets, powders, or liquids that function as a supplement to the lack of nutrients needed to keep the vitality of the body to be excellent. As a compliment, dietary supplements are not interpreted as substitutes (substitutions) for our daily food (Ida, 2009).

Dietary supplements are classified as nutraceuticals, while drugs are in the pharmaceutical group. Unlike drugs that have to be clinically tested for effectiveness following a series of procedures, the dietary supplement does not need to be proven through clinical trials. Until now, any type of nutraceutical can be sold freely, but it should not be claimed to have the properties to treat diseases, such as drugs (Wuri, 2008).

The word nutraceutical is a combination of the words nutrition and pharmaceutical, which means the product has a beneficial effect on human health. Nutraceuticals are often referred to as functional foods. These food products can improve health and also prevent disease.
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